Legal principle, applicable in international disputes, that aliens have no more rights than the citizens of a sovereign state. Therefore, such disputes lie within the purview of the domestic laws and only the courts in the host country have the jurisdiction to hear the case. This doctrine is an integral part of many national constitutions and treaties (specially in Latin America) and forms the basis of Calvo clause. Named after the Argentine diplomat and historian Carlos Calvo (1824-1906) who propounded it in his 1868 book 'Derecho internacional teórico y práctico de Europa y América.' See also Monroe doctrine.