, applicable in international disputes, that aliens have no more rights than the citizens of a sovereign state
. Therefore, such disputes lie within the purview of the domestic
laws and only the courts in the host country
have the jurisdiction
to hear the case. This doctrine
is an integral part of many national constitutions and treaties (specially in Latin America) and forms the basis of Calvo clause
. Named after the Argentine diplomat and historian Carlos Calvo (1824-1906) who propounded it in his 1868 book 'Derecho internacional teórico y práctico de Europa y América.' See also Monroe doctrine.