used in quality control and elsewhere as a simplified method
of achieving improvements
. These steps are: (1) Plan: determine what needs to be done, when, how, and by whom. (2) Do: carry out the plan
, on a small-scale first. (3) Check: analyze
the results of carrying out the plan. (4) Act: take appropriate steps to close the gap between planned and actual results. Named after its proposer, the US mathematician Dr. Walter Shewart (1891-1967). Also called Deming cycle
, Deming wheel
, or plan do check act (PDCA) cycle.