of existence or non-existence of an alleged or disputed fact
, based on reasoning and not on personal knowledge
or observation. If an ordinary
, intelligent person
may infer (from certain facts and circumstances) that other connected facts and circumstances necessarily also exist, such facts and circumstances are considered proven by circumstantial evidence
. Except eyewitness testimony
(see direct evidence), all evidence of fact is circumstantial. In some cases, circumstantial evidence is given higher credence, because direct evidence
may be mistaken or perjured (see perjury). Also called indirect evidence.