Degree and type of relationship between any two or more quantities (variables) in which they vary together over a period; for example, variation in the level of expenditure or savings with variation in the level of income. A positive correlation exists where the high values of one variable are associated with the high values of the other variable(s). A 'negative correlation' means association of high values of one with the low values of the other(s). Correlation can vary from +1 to -1. Values close to +1 indicate a high-degree of positive correlation, and values close to -1 indicate a high degree of negative correlation. Values close to zero indicate poor correlation of either kind, and 0 indicates no correlation at all. While correlation is useful in discovering possible connections between variables, it does not prove or disprove any cause-and-effect (causal) relationships between them. See also regression.
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