dealing with mechanisms employed
by natural and man-made systems to learn and evolve, and to organize, regulate, and reproduce themselves. Although the objectives of cybernetics are similar to those of the general systems theory (GST)
, it is concerned primarily with communication
rather than with the 'wholeness' of a system
or with complex
interactions within and among systems. Cybernetics is a Greek word meaning steersmanship an opposite of 'dictatorship.' Borrowed from French by the US mathematician Dr. Norbert Weiner (1894-1964) and quoted in his 1948 book 'Cybernetics, Or Control And Communication In Animal And Machine' which is based on the concepts he co-developed with a Mexican physician, Dr.
Arturo Rosenblueth (1900-70).