free of particular average (FPA)

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Marine insurance provision which limits the liability of an insurance company to only those losses that exceed a specified percentage of the value of the goods. It is similar to the deductible clause included in other types of insurance, but is not applicable where a cover for total loss is in force. FPA conditions are applied where the goods are extremely susceptible to damage, or are rendered almost worthless from exposure to water or heat. However, its usage differs in the UK (where it applies to partial loss caused directly or indirectly by mishaps such as burning, collision, sinking, or stranding of the ship) from its usage in the US (where it applies only to loss caused directly by such mishaps).
FPA conditions have now largely been replaced by the world-wide standard 'Institute Cargo Clause C.' See also with particular average.

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