in a furnace by controlled burning at high
temperatures. Incineration removes water from hazardous sludge
, reduces its mass and/or volume
, and converts it to a non-burnable ash that can be safely disposed of on land
, in some waters, or in underground pits. However, it is a highly contentious method
because incomplete incineration can produce
carbon monoxide gas, gaseous dioxins
, and/or other harmful substances.