job analysis

  

Definition

Detailed examination of the (1) tasks (performance elements) that make up a job (employee role), (2) conditions under which they are performed, and (3) what the job requires in terms of aptitudes (potential for achievement), attitudes (behavior characteristics), knowledge, skills, and the physical condition of the employee. Its objectives include (a) determination of the most efficient methods of doing a job, (b) enhancement of the employee's job satisfaction, (c) improvement in training methods, (d) development of performance measurement systems, and (e) matching of job-specifications with the person-specifications in employee selection. Comprehensive job analysis begins with the study of the organization itself: its purpose, design and structure, inputs and outputs, internal and external environments, and resource constraints. It is the first step in a thorough understanding of the job and forms the basis of job description which leads to job specification. Also called human resource audit, job study, or occupational analysis. See also activity analysis, performance analysis, and task analysis.

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