Mathematical technique used in computer modeling (simulation) to find the best possible solution in allocating limited resources (energy, machines, materials, money, personnel, space, time, etc.) to achieve maximum profit or minimum cost. However, it is applicable only where all relationships are linear (see linear relationship), and can accommodate only a limited class of cost functions. For problems involving more complex cost functions, another technique called 'mixed integer modeling' is employed. Developed by the Russian economist Leonid Kantorovich (1912-86) and the US economist C. Koopmans (1910-86), on the basis of the work of the Russian mathematician Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903-87).