1. Communications: Approach in which employees are given extensive information (including confidential data) on the prospects of their actions and then provided with feedback on their performance.
2. Decision making: Approach in which the desired results or objectives of a decided upon first and then methods to achieve them are selected.
3. Investing: Approach in which the economic trends are examined first to select the firms or industries that are expected to benefit from those trends.
4. Management: Approach in which the board decides what results are to be achieved and how, and passes the plan down the hierarchy or management levels.