1. Manufacturing: Systematic analysis that identifies and selects the best value alternatives for designs, materials, processes, and systems. It proceeds by repeatedly asking "can the cost of this item or step be reduced or eliminated, without diminishing the effectiveness, required quality, or customer satisfaction?" Also called value engineering, its objectives are (1) to distinguish between the incurred costs (actual use of resources) and the costs inherent (locked in) in a particular design (and which determine the incurring costs), and (2) to minimize the locked-in costs.
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